Important Info about Citing

Download sources as you find them! Important notes about URLS:

  • Include urls as required by your ciation system for online sources but always download the item as URLs do not always work. Here is an explanation of url issues from Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Use the doi as a url for a journal article when possible (doi = unique identifying # for the article) - e.g. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10770-4.

  • The urls from our USIC search will not work. IF you have only the url, you'll have to find the document again by searching the highlighted part only from the url in our USIC search. There is not always an AN # though, so download. 

Below are styles and basic outlines of their disciplines. Your teacher might require you to use a different citation styles for the disciplines below.

Chicago/CMOS

  • History, Business, Fine Arts

MLA

  • Literature, World Languages, Film, Performing Arts 

APA 

  • Psychology, Social Sciences

Comparison of APA, MLA, and CMOS.

TAS teachers might also require using one of the below systems. 

  • AMS - Mathematics from the Amer. Mathematical Society
  • ACS - Chemistry from the  Amer. Chemical Society
  • AIP - Physics from the Amer. Institute of Physics.
  • CSE  -  Science from the Council of Science Editors

For more information on which styles to use when, check the resources below, which have also been consulted to update this page. Remember:  If your teacher tells you to use a particular style guide, that is the guide you should use!

Rules for Citation Success
  • Record your source as soon as you find it! It can be difficult to go back and find a source again.
  • Always follow the guidelines that your teacher gives even if they differ slightly from the citation rules. 
  • Have open an online or hard copy of the citation guide (Chicago, APA, MLA) while you are creating/fixing your citations.
  • Always proofread when using a citation generator or database-generated citation before handing in your assignment. Generators and databases make mistakes.
  • Citations have rules. Follow them consistently. Citations follow a pattern so that readers can easily recognize where to find the research you’ve used.
  • Do NOT leave proofing your citations until the last minute. You need time to review as detail requires focus.
  • For your own reference, do not rely on a URL to revisit your source. Record the database/website name as well as the author and title information even before formatting your citation. 
How to Find Citation Information in a Print Book

On the back of the title page of a book, there is a page called the verso page. This page has information needed for your citation and, usually, an ISBN (which is handy if you are using Zotero). Please see the image below for an example of the information found on a verso page.

Sample Citations in Chicago

Chicago Manual of Style: Notes Bibliography system: Sample Citations

Book

  • One author

(N) 1. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), 64-65.
(N) 2. Gladwell, Tipping Point, 71.
(Bib) Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.

  • Two or more authors. 

(N) 1. Peter Morey and Amina Yaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 52.
(N) 2. Morey and Yaqin, Framing Muslims, 60-61.
(Bib) Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

  • Four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by "et al."("and others"):

(N) 1. Jay M. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics after Adorno (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 276.
(N) 2. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics, 18.
(Bib) Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

  • Editor or translator instead of author

(N) 1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91-92.
(N) 2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.
(Bib) Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

  • Editor or translator in addition to author

(N) 1. Jane Austen, Persuasion: An Annotated Edition, ed. Robert Morrison (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011), 311-12.
(N) 2. Austen, Persuasion, 315.
(Bib) Austen, Jane. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

  • Chapter or other part of a book

(N) 1. Angeles Ramirez, "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images," in Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, ed. Faegheh Shirazi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010), 231.
(N) 2. Ramirez, "Muslim Women," 239-40.
(Bib) Ramirez, Angeles. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

  • Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

(N) 1. William Cronon, foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012), ix.
(N) 2. Cronon, foreword, x-xi.
(Bib) Cronon, William. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

  • Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

(N) 1. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration (New York: Vintage, 2010), 183-84, Kindle.
(N) 2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, 2011, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
(N) 3. Joseph P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 211, ProQuest Ebrary.

(N) 4. Wilkerson, Warmth of Other Suns, 401.
(N) 5. Kurland and Lerner, Founders' Constitution.
(N) 6. Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, 88.

(Bib) Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage, 2010. Kindle.
(Bib) Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
(Bib) Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

Reference Works (encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc.)

  • Encyclopedias

(N) 1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "Monroe Doctrine."
(N) 2. Encyclopaedia Britannica, s.v. "Monroe Doctrine."
(Bib) "Monroe Doctrine." In Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2002.

  • Print Reference Works/Encyclopedias with an author and/or editor

(Bib) Isaacson, Melissa. “Bulls.” In Encyclopedia of Chicago, edited by Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. Grossman. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 2005. 
(Bib) Masolo, Dismas. “African Sage Philosophy.” In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Redwood City: Stanford University Press, 1997.

  • Additional bibliographic entries for print reference works

(Bib) Diccionario de historia de Venezuela. 2nd ed. 4 vols. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1997.
(Bib) Garner, Bryan A. Garner’s Modern English Usage. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
(Bib) Middleton, Richard. “Lennon, John Ono (1940–1980).” In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

  • Encyclopedias consulted online will require a URL. 

(N) 1. Britannica Academic, s.v. "Monroe Doctrine," https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Monroe-Doctrine/53434.
(N) 2. Britannica Academic, s.v. "Monroe Doctrine."
(Bib) Britannica Academic, s.v. "Monroe Doctrine,"  https://academic-eb-com.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/levels/collegiate/artic....

For lesser known or more specialized works, include the publication information in the notes and list the work in your bibliography.

(N) 1. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd. ed. (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2008), [Section or page #].
(N) 2. MLA Style, [Section or page #].
(Bib) MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd. ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 2008.

Articles

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article. Journals have volume and issue numbers that need to be included unlike magazines. Journal authors are often subject experts

  • Article in a print journal

(N) 1. Alexandra Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate," Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.
(N) 2. Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol," 157.
(Bib) Bogren, Alexandra. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155-69.

  • Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead. 

(N) 1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 752, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.
(N) 2. Anastacia Kurylo, "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum," China Media Research, 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 75-77, Academic OneFile.
(N) 3. Brown, "Consequentialize This," 761.
(N) 4. Kurylo, "Linsanity," 18-19.

(Bib) Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.
(Bib) Kurylo, Anastacia. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 15-28. Academic OneFile.

  • Magazine article

(N) 1. Jill Lepore, "Dickens in Eden,"New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52.
(N) 2. Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," 54-55.
(Bib) Lepore, Jill. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29, 2011.

  • Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

(N) 1. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat," New York Times, January 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-....
(N) 2. Bumiller and Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban."
(Bib) Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-....

  • Book review

(N) 1. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, ed. Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754,  http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.
(N) 2. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History,752.
(Bib) Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Theses, conference papers 

  • Thesis or dissertation

(N) 1. Dana S. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2.
(N) 2. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex," 98.
(Bib) Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

  • Paper (presented at a meeting or conference)

(N) 1. Rachel Adelman, " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition" (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009).
(N) 2. Adelman, "Such Stuff as Dreams."
(Bib) Adelman, Rachel. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009.


Sources from the Internet: Websites, Blogs, Emails, Videos Online

General information about formatting websites (CMOS, Section 14): 

  • write titles of websites without quotation marks and capitalize first words except prepositions and conjunctions (no italics - unless the website is of a known publication, e.g. New York Times).
  • titled sections of websites are in quotation marks
  • titles of blogs are italicized and entries in blogs have quotes around them (blogs are treated like journals in this sense)
  • If the site has a modification, publication, or revision date, put this information before the website url in your bibliography and in your first note
  • name the website in the text so you can avoid a long footnote;("As of the year 2017, Google Privacy Policy had over x words..."). If you need a more formal citation to reference specific content from the site, use the examples below. Because online web content changes frequently, if there is an update or copyright date on the site, include it.
  • The basic format for a website (from CMOS)

(N) “Title of Document/Webpage,” Title of the website, Author/Owner, last modified date or accessed date, URL.
(N) Author's last name, “Shortened title of Document/Webpage.” (If there is no author then put just the title of webpage/document. If you are citing a whole site and there is no author or webpage/document, just put the name of the site.)
(Bib) Author (and/or owner, sponsor). “Document/Webpage Title.” Title of Website. Updated or Accessed Date. URL.

  • Websites

(N) 1. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017, https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.
(N) 2. Google, “Privacy Policy.”
(Bib) Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

(N)1. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
(N) 2. “Yale Facts.”
(Bib) Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

(N) 1. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
(N) 2. Bouman, “Black Hole.”
(Bib) Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

  • Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

(N) 1. Gary Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker....
(N) 2. Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?"
(Bib) Becker, Gary. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker....

  • E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

(N) 1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012.

  • Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows how to integrate the information into running text.

Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

If you must have a footnote, you can follow the example below.

(N) 1. Conan O’Brien, Twitter post, April 22, 2015, https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien.

Lecture, Speech, or Reading

Live or in-person speech:
(N) 1. Barack Obama, "At This Moment We All Face a Choice." (speech, United Nations. General Assembly, New York, NY, September 20, 2016).
(N) 2. Obama, "At This."
(Bib) Obama, Barack. "At This Moment We All Face a Choice." Speech, United Nations. General Assembly, New York, NY, September 20, 2016.

Speech from a database or other source

Citing a transcript of the presentation in a book, anthology, website or database? A presentation broadcast on television/radio or archived as an online video or online audio recording?

(N) 1. Barack Obama, "At This Moment We All Face a Choice." speech, September 20, 2016, Academic Search Complete (119215940).
(N) 2. Obama, "At This," speech.
(Bib) Obama, Barack. "At This Moment We All Face a Choice." Speech, September 20,
     2016. Academic Search Complete (119215940).

Photo or painting

  • General example of order of photo or painting citation

(N) 1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Image Title, Year, medium, size, Museum or Place image is, Location, URL.
(N) 2. Author full name, Image title.
(Bib) Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Image Title. Year. Medium. size. Museum or Place image is, Location, URL. 

  • Painting from a website

(N) 1. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, General José de Palafox on Horseback, 1884, oil on canvas, 248 cm x 224 cm, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/general-jose-de-...?.
(N) 2. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes,General José de Palafox on Horseback.
(Bib) Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de.General José de Palafox on Horseback. 1884. Oil on canvas, 248 cm x 224 cm. Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid. 2021. https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/general-jose-de-....

  • Photo from a website

(N) 1. James Barnor, Mike Eghan at Picadilly Circus, London, 1967 printed 1010, gelatin silver print on paper, 281 × 283 mm. Tate. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/barnor-mike-eghan-at-picadilly-circ...
(N) 2. James Barnor, Mike Eghan at Picadilly Circus, London.
(Bib) James Barnor, Mike Eghan at Picadilly Circus, London. 1967 printed 1010. Gelatin silver print on paper. 281 × 283 mm. Tate. https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/barnor-mike-eghan-at-picadilly-circ...

More examples here in CMOS

Photo from database (Sample below is untitled photograph.)

(N) 1. Central Press, A small group of North Vietnamese women undergoing rifle training before joining Viet Cong forces during the Vietnam War, photograph, September 11, 1967, Hulton Archive, Getty Image Collection (imh598600).
 (N) 2. Central Press, A small group of North Vietnamese women undergoing rifle training before joining Viet Cong forces during the Vietnam War.
(Bib) Central Press. A small group of North Vietnamese women undergoing rifle training before joining Viet Cong forces during the Vietnam War. Photograph.September 11, 1967. Hulton Archive, Getty Image Collection (imh598600).

Primary Source Documents

  • Primary source document from website general format (Include the publication date of the website if found.)

(N) Author's first name last name, "Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle," Title of Website, Date, website url.
(N) Author's first name last name, "Title of Primary Source Document (shortened)."
(Bib) Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle." Year of creation.Title of Website, Publisher of Website, Publication Date, URL.

(N) Author's first name last name, description of primary source, Date, in Title of Secondary Source, ed. Editor's first name last name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages.
(N) Last name, short description of primary source, pages.
(Bib) Author's last name, first name. Description of primary source, Date. In Title of Secondary Source, edited by Editor's first name last name. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

  • Primary source document found in a secondary source general format example

(N) Paulina Jackson to John Pepys Junior, October 3, 1676, in The Letters of Samuel Pepys and His Family Circle, ed. Helen Truesdell Heath (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955), 43-44.
(N) Jackson, letter to Pepys, 47.
(Bib) Jackson, Paulina. Letter to John Pepys Junior, October 3, 1676. In The Letters of Samuel Pepys and His Family Circle, edited by Helen Truesdell Heath. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955.

Unless otherwise noted, examples taken or adapted from The Chicago Manual of Style Online(17th ed.) Notes and Bibliography Section.

Using an Online Citation Generator

Zotero has an easy online citation generator, zbib.orgNo citation generator is perfect. Proof your citations. 

When using the zbib.org the first time:

  • put in your ISBN or title first (or url, etc.)
  • once you have a citation choose your citation style
  • choose Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition Note and Bibliography (you might have to search the word Chicago)
Helpful Notes on CMOS Notes and Bib System
  • Always download the full text of the article/book, if available, AND grab the full citation. Permalinks and urls are not reliable.Here is an explanation of the issues with URLs from the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Chicago Manual of Style no longer requires an access date for online sources, but some databases and citation generators (NoodleTools, Zotero) still insert a date of access. If you decide to use accessed date, just use it consistently. 

    Chicago  Bibliography and Notes Style

    • A note has a different format than the bibliography format and a note icludes pages referenced. Find examples more examples online the Chicago manual itself.  
    • A bibliography is a list of your sources at the end of your paper. List sources in alphabetical order by the author's last name or the title of the work if there is no author. Sample of a Bibliography

    Footnotes go at the bottom of each page and the format shortens if you cite the source more than once.

    • Use the full note style when citing a source for the first time in your paper.
    • Use the short note style citing a source for the second time and thereafter.
    Selected Formats for Sources from Chicago

    Below are examples that link directly to the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). Owl Purdue CMOS site also has good examples.

    Popular Types of Sources

    • Books and journal articles: 14.23
      • Two or more authors (or editors): 14.76
      • No listed author: 14.79
      • Organization as author see 14.84
      • Chapter in a single-author book: 14.106
      • Contribution to a multiauthor book: 14.107
      • Introductions, prefaces, afterwords (sic), and the like: 14.110
      • Books consulted online: 14.161
    • Basic citation format for magazine articles: 14.188
    • Magazine articles consulted online: 14.189
    • Citing web pages and websites: 14.207
    • Citing blog posts and blogs: 14.208
    • Citing social media content: 14.209
    • Encyclopedia and other reference works consulted in physical formats: 14.232
    • Encyclopedia and other reference works consulted online: 14.233
    • Videos, podcasts, and other online multimedia: 14.267

    Primary Sources

    • Personal communications, email (should be integrated into your text rather than as a citation): 14.214
    • Theses and dissertations: 14.215
    • Lectures and papers or posters presented at meetings: 14.217
    • Videos, recprdings (see above): 14.267

    Sample Paper for Chicago (See an entire paper with examples of notes and the bibliography.)

    Sample of a Bibliography See only the bibliography.

    How to Find Citation Information from a Print Book

    On the back of the title page of a book, there is a page called the verso page. This page has information needed for your citation and, usually, an ISBN (which is handy if you are using Zotero). Please see the image below for an example of the information found on a verso page.

    Citing Primary Sources

    Open the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) first and then use the links below. If possible, cite from the website of the institution that holds the source if it is a digitized item. If you find the item in a secondary source, and not on an institution's website, there is an example below. Please note that the (Bib) entry is for your bibliography, and that is not possible to do hanging indents on this page - you'll need an indent in all lines after the first for each item in your bibliography.

    • Lectures and papers or posters presented at meetings: 14.217
    • Manuscript collections: 14.230
    • Paintings, photographs and sculptures: 14.235
    • Maps: 14.237
    • Videos, podcasts, and other online multimedia: 14.267

    For other primary sources you can follow the below recommendations. Although, accessed date of a url is not generally required, if you include it once, include it in all the soruces you accessed online. Remember to use a hanging indent for your bibliography - the examples below, noted by "(Bib)" do not have the indent.

    • Primary source document from website general format (Include the publication date of the website if found.)

    (N) Author's first name last name, "Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle," Title of Website, Date, website url.
    (N) Author's first name last name, "Title of Primary Source Document (shortened)."
    (Bib) Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle." Year of creation.Title of Website, Publisher of Website, Publication Date, URL.

    (N) Author's first name last name, description of primary source, Date, in Title of Secondary Source, ed. Editor's first name last name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages.
    (N) Last name, short description of primary source, pages.
    (Bib) Author's last name, first name. Description of primary source, Date. In Title of Secondary Source, edited by editor's first name last name. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

    • Primary source document found in a secondary source -  general format example

    (N) Paulina Jackson to John Pepys Junior, October 3, 1676, in The Letters of Samuel Pepys and His Family Circle, ed. Helen Truesdell Heath (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955), 43-44.
    (N) Jackson, letter to Pepys, 47.
    (Bib) Jackson, Paulina. Letter to John Pepys Junior, October 3, 1676. In The Letters of Samuel Pepys
    and His Family Circle
    , edited by Helen Truesdell Heath. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955.

    Citation Generators and Database Generated Citations

    Always download the full article or book, if you can, and copy or export the full citation. URLS and permalinks might not work.

    A note on citing online sources: Chicago Manual of Style no longer requires an access date or online sources, but some databases still insert it their generated citations that's fine as long as you consistently insert them in your other citations. Just be consistent in how, when, and if you use an accessed date. It can be confusing to figure out what format is correct for online sources, but do your best and stay consistent.

    Zotero

    Zotero has an easy online generatorzbib.org, that supports CMS 17th edition. No citation generator is perfect and you should always check your work against the Chicago Manual.

    When using the zbib.org the first time:

    • put in your ISBN or title first into the box
    • once you have a citation choose your citation style
    • choose Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition Note or Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition Note and Bibliography (you might have to search the word Chicago)

     

    Using the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition Online

    Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) has two methods for citation. TAS uses the Notes and Bibliography (NB) style and not Author-DateSection 14 of Part III, and the NB section of the Citation Quick Guide have examples of bibliography as well as note and shortened note formats for citations. For the majority of your citations, especially as a beginning researcher, you will find the information you need in the Citation Quick Guide or on this webpage. If you have questions about more complex citations, ask us or search the CMOS

    Searching Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) 

    Topics are arranged by numbers. The numbers after the period represent different sections on the same topic (e.g.,14.1-14.37). Search for keywords like "video" or legal documents to find NB citation information (usually the number for NB begins with 14).

    Bibliography and Footnote Formatting

    A bibliography is a list of your sources on a page at the end of your paper. The sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name. Alphabetize by the title of the work if there is no author. Omit articles (the, a, and) when alphabetizing titles.

    TAS uses footnotes instead of endnotes. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page. The footnote format changes the second time you cite the source and thereafter.

    • Use the full longer note style when citing a source for the first time in your paper.
    • Use the shortened note style citing a source for the second time and thereafter.
    MLA

    MLA (Modern Language Association) 

    MLA is used mainly for literature research, but it can also be used for other disciplines. It's currently in its 9th edition.

    • Purdue OWL MLA Style has a description of the style plus examples of in text citations and works cited. Purdue takes its information from the 8th edition, which is fine as the latest edition, the 9th, adds more information to the 8th but does not change the citation style. For information on the difference between the 8th and 9th editions, see Purdue University's page.
    • MLA Handbook,  9th ed., is available in the library. Ask for the book at the circulation desk.

     

    MLA Handbook Book Cover

     

    APA

    The most current APA Manual is the 7th edition.

    Online Citation Managers

    Citation managers help you create and manage citations and bibliographies/reference lists.

    Zotero
    Generate your citation at ZoteroBib or download the plugin to keep track of all your sources at Zotero. You can generate citations as well as save and organize your citation information for future use on other projects in Zotero. Zotero is free and you can keep your account throughout your academic career.

    NoodleTools
    TAS students can register for a full-access NoodleTools account that is  associated with Taipei American School. This school account will have more features than a free, online account.   Once registered, students have access until graduation.

    Word
     Word also has a citation manager, but Word does not have the most up-to-date version of some citation style guides. Word uses the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. Universities and TAS use the 17th edition.

    AMS

    The American Mathematical Society has a mathematics style guide that uses a numbering system.  Read about AMS and download the guide (large PDF) on the AMS site. There is no print version of this guide in the library, but the full guide (PDF) is online.

    AIP

    The American Institute of Physics has a style guide that is used mainly for physics. The information on this site is helpful. There is not a print guide, but there is a full version of the guide (pdf) online. Your teacher will tell you if you need to use this guide.

    ACS

    The American Chemical Society has a guide for chemistry research papers. You can find some information on the ACS site. Use this guide fro papers specifically about chemistry.

    CSE

    For research papers in science, students may use the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. There is a helpful online guide from the CSE as well as a Dalhousie university guide that has up-to-date information as of March 2022.